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Acanthastrea Lordhowensis  
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Term used to describe an alkali or base that is normally soluble in water. Any compound that when disolved in water raises pure water pH above 7.0 would be considered a base. Additional information made be found by clicking here.
Banggai Cardinalfish  
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Blue Spotted Jawfish   
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Blue Angelfish 
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This is a solution or mix of a weak acid and a strong base. This mixture has the ability to resist changes to the pH of a solution in which it is added. A well buffered aquarium will resist pH swings and tends to maintain a constant pH. Additional information made be found by clicking here
Clown Fairy Wrasse 
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Copperband Butterflyfish
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 also known as Red Slime Algae is not truly an alga as it’s actually classified as an organism somewhere between bacteria and algae, somewhere between bacteria cells and plant cells.  Interesting note, cyanobacteria actually means blue-green algae. Even more interesting most forms of cyanobacteria found in saltwater aquariums is not even blue; normally you will find brown, brown-green, red or dark red, rarely blue.

Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic and it’s quite normal to see a film of Red Slime Algae over some of your live rock with little clear bubbles of oxygen attached. Cyanobacteria outbreaks can normally be traced back to poor water quality. High levels of phosphates, high levels of dissolved organic compounds and too much light and you have a recipe for a pretty severe outbreak. Poor or less than optimal protein skimming is often the cause. Any protein skimming is better than none at all, but poor skimming will eventually lead to problems.

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Flame Angelfish 
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Flame Hawkfish
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German Ram
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is an organism that has both male and female reproductive organs. They may possess both sets of organs at the same time or morph from one sex to another. 
is a German word that means lime water and is another name for calcium hydroxide. Kalkwasser is normally mixed in fresh water that will be added to your reef tank as make up water to replace the water lost due to evaporation. Kalkwasser replaces the calcium lost to your corals, crustaceans, coraline algae and assorted other calcareous organisms. Kalkwasser also plays an effective role in helping to maintain a high (8.2 - 8.4) pH. One of the best ways to add Kalkwasser is thru a slow drip dosing method whereby aquarium water is replaced at more or less the same rate as evaporation. Keep in mind that Kalkwasser losses it's effectiveness in a relativly short period of time so you may want to mix up your fresh water / Kalkwasser dose on a daily basis. 
Kenya Tree Coral 
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Knobby Mushroom 
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Majestic Angelfish 
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Mushroom Anemone 
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Nassarius Snail 
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Ninja Star Snail 
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Nitrogen Cycle 
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This is the measure of acidity or basicity of a solution. The pH scale runs from 0 which would be an extreme acid such as battery acid to 14 which would be an extreme base such as bleaches / drain cleaners. pH can be considered a measurement of hydrogen ion concentration. The higher the hydrogen ion concentration the lower the pH. Adding an acid increases the hydrogen ion concentration and therefore lowers the pH. Adding a base or akaline decreases the concentration of hydrogen ions and therefore increases the ph. Pure water would be considered a neutral at a pH of 7.0. There are some substances that enable solutions (including saltwater) to resist pH changes; these are called buffers. Seawater pH is normally about 8.3. Additional information can be found by clicking here.
is the process in which plants, bacteria and in the marine world zooxanthellae use the energy from sunlight along with water and carbon dioxide to produce oxygen and carbohydrates or sugar. Corals then use the oxygen and sugar given off by the algae as basic sources of energy and nutrition. Corals that receive their food thru this manner are termed photosynthetic. 
is the primary source of food for many types of algae, especially problematic algaes such as hair, cyanobacteria and slime. In fact,  phosphates levels of .05ppm or higher will most certainly guarantee an almost instant algae bloom. Phosphates come from numerous sources such as large biological loads (high number of fish and corals), over feeding and the associated wastes, biological die off and phosphate within the water we use and the additives we place in our tanks.
To control phosphate we first should attempt to minimize the introduction of phosphate into our tanks. Stocking our tanks appropriately, using RO water for make-up and saltwater mix and ensuring that any additives we use are low / phosphate free. By simply limiting the introduction of phosphate and phosphate producers you are half way there.
The second step is the removal process. The methods you use are dependent on the size of your tank and the phosphate levels present in the tank. The easiest method is simply the addition of a phosphate “sponge”. These are basically filter pads filled with materials known to absorb phosphate. It’s highly recommended that you place these sponges within a strong water flow. For larger tanks and or higher phosphate concentrations you would most likely utilize some type of Phosphate Reactor.  Most reactor units are designed to be multi-functional such that you could add a phosphate remover along with other types of filter media. These filters are designed to remove larger concentrations of phosphate in a relativly short period of time. Once they minimize the phosphate level they then work to keep it at a constant low level. 
Protein Skimmer 
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Pygmy Angelfish 
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Royal Gramma 
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Sailfin Tang 
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When looking at the salinity level of water you are simply looking at the amount of dissolved salts within the water. This is measured in parts per thousand. Specific Gravity is the measurement that compares the density of a liquid to the density of water. Any liquid with a specific gravity greater than 1 is more dense than water.  Saltwater has a SG of approx. 1.025. Specific gravity is much easier to measure than salinity therefore it is the measurement of choice for aquarists. There are a number of tools available for the hobbyist to use to measure SG. Plastic hydrometers that may simply be dipped into the water and read and or glass tubes designed to float in your water. Or you can use a refractometer a device where you place a drop or two of saltwater on the lens, close the lens top and look thru the refractometers eye piece to read the SG. All work well and will normally provide reasonably accurate readings. Although refractometers are more accurate and are becoming more and more affordable. 
Scopas Tang 
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Skunk Cleaner Shrimp 
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Yellow Tang 
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Yellowtail Blue Damsel
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photosynthetic alga living in a symbiotic relationship within many different species of coral. Zooxanthellae are unicellular plants that live within the coral and provide a source of food to the coral thru a process known as photosynthesis. In return, the coral protects the zooxanthellae from predators and provides a base from which it can absorb light. Most species of coral hosts colonies of zooxanthellae. A common term concerning coral is bleaching and is the term used to describe coral that has lost it’s color. This is normally caused by the coral’s loss of zooxanthellae. Too much loss of zooxanthellae will cause the coral to die. 
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Fort Myers, Florida
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